What are finite verbs?
Finite verbs are verbs that have subjects and change form according to person and number of the subject. It changes it’s form as per the tense too. (Subject-verb agreement).
For example, let us consider the verb, “go”:
They went to the market yesterday. (The form of “go” changes to “went” in past tense.)
He is going to the market now. (The form of “go” changes to “is going” in present continuous tense. “is” is used as the subject “he” is singular.)
They are going to the market now. (The form of “go” changes to “are going” in present continuous tense. “are” is used as the subject “they” is plural.)
I shall go to the market tomorrow. (The form of “go” changes to “shall go” in future tense.)
What are non-finite verbs?
Non-finite verbs do not have tense and do not show agreement with subject. They do not change their form. Gerunds (-Ing form of verb), infinitives, present participles and past participles are non-finite verbs. E.g. swimming, to play, running, loved etc.
For Example, let us consider the infinitive, “to buy”:
They went to the market yesterday to buy vegetables.
He is going to the market now to buy provisions.
I shall go to the market next week to buy books.
In the above sentences, the non-finite verb, “to buy “, (an infinitive) does not change it’s form according to tense.